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This project is part of our superluminal warp drive research. We believe that spending time and money in this direction is very important as we see the future of the humanity among the stars.

We research ways to create cavitations & bubbles in space-time which can be utilized to warp space-time and potentially allow faster than light travel.

A general-relativistic treatment of the problem reveals that trajectories for the bubble surface can always exist if we suppose that the bubbles are massive or retain some energy density. In fact one can always suppose that their exterior is described by a Schwarzschild metric in its maximal analytic extension. The sphericity creates some thermodynamic consequences, as the entropy dependence on the surface of the bubbles decreases with the bubble collapse, this is connected to the energy changes. Johnson et al. showed that there is no choice of an inner potential, and positive energy density on the bubble wall independent of the radius can give a solution that is non-singular at the origin. However, allowing the energy density on the wall to depend on the radius of the bubble, stable, static, non-singular solutions of negative mass which satisfy the dominant energy condition can be found. The interest on the subject of semi-classical vacuum decay dates back to the work of Coleman. A driving mechanism of the spacetime decay has been found to be the formation of bubbles. In other words, if we live in a false vacuum phase, an allowed process will be the formation of true vacuum bubbles expanding and coalescing between them. In there, gravity could inhibit the bubble nucleation process and even stop it.

Negative mass or negative energy densities are physically meaningful as long as the dominant energy condition is satisfied by the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. A thermodynamic hypothesis in terms of the negative energy density can be also used over the matter tensor. In a de Sitter spherical configuration, reduction of entropy implies information changes that require energy change, the system tending to equilibrium by reducing its entropy is intended to be interpreted as negative energy density configuration. A feasible scenario of tachyon matter interpretation could be elaborated in terms of negative density energy configurations as states defining the macroscopic behavior of the object.

See the Pen Space globe - Three.js by Ivaylo Vasilev (@ivaylo-vasilev-the-typescripter) on CodePen.

Here you can see some of the updates for the warp drive research, to see all the news please visit the **news feed. **

We publish regular **Updates **on the Warp-drive research in our YouTube channel:

https://www.youtube.com/c/AstrumDriveTechnologies

4/18/2023 Company Update:

We made a significant breakthrough in the Warp Drives. We showed that it is not required to have negative energy to create a functional warp drive. Here is the article in “General Relativity and Gravitation”, one of the most reputable Physics journals in the world:

Warp Dives – revisiting the problem of negative energy

1/13/2023 Update:

We received a US patent for our Warp Drive propulsion.

We were able to integrate the spherical warp-drive metric, electromagnetic fields, rotation, heat fluxes, radial and tangential pressures, anisotropies, and null fields into a unified framework with the aim of designing and conducting laboratory experiments to manipulate space-time.

This research is consistent with the general relativity and will be published in top-tier physics journals.

1/12/2023 Update:

We developed a new warp-drive metric with many favorable symmetries, details below.

Following in part the reasoning by Alcubierre’s original work and the introduction of physical warp drives made by Bobrick, we introduce a spacetime warp metric that rather uses and keeps spherical symmetry explicitly. In this way we write the Einstein equations using a perfect fluid and an anisotropic fluid with cosmological constant as test matter source.

Analyzing the energy conditions for both cases, we find that each of these cases are flexible enough to allow them to partially satisfy the energy conditions.

We also find that when the warp bubble shape function is time-independent, the metric admits a time-like Killing vector and all the energy conditions are satisfied except for the strong energy condition. Moreover, in the time-independent case a barotropic equation of state known from cosmological models naturally arises.

We published an article describing the new warp-metric in top tier (Q1) physics journal:

https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-11091-5

**9/27/2022 Update:**

Many problems have to be solved in order to achieve a viable warp drive. One of the best known is the problem of negative energy density but the search for sources of this type of energy didn’t bear any results. Our approach is to explore new families of metrics, solutions and regions that require positive energy densities.

The current warp-drive models, mostly based on Alcubierre’s 1994 proposal, are based on simple assumptions, contain no natural symmetries and are expressed using the simplest matter-energy configurations – this makes them impractical and difficult to work with. This is why we are adding new ingredients to the warp drive equations and looking for mechanisms that can be tested in analogous gravity and eventually in a laboratory.

What are these ingredients? They basically fall into two groups:

- Metrics with specific advantageous symmetries.
- Complex matter and thermodynamic relations.

We already have new metric proposals and some very interesting results. We are currently preparing several papers in prestigious peer-reviewed physics journals. Once published, we will post them here.

ENABLE INTERSTELLAR TRAVEL

This project is part of our superluminal warp drive research. We believe that spending time and money in this direction is very important as we see the future of the humanity among the stars.

We research ways to create cavitations & bubbles in space-time which can be utilized to warp space-time and potentially allow faster than light travel.

A general-relativistic treatment of the problem reveals that trajectories for the bubble surface can always exist if we suppose that the bubbles are massive or retain some energy density. In fact one can always suppose that their exterior is described by a Schwarzschild metric in its maximal analytic extension. The sphericity creates some thermodynamic consequences, as the entropy dependence on the surface of the bubbles decreases with the bubble collapse, this is connected to the energy changes. Johnson et al. showed that there is no choice of an inner potential, and positive energy density on the bubble wall independent of the radius can give a solution that is non-singular at the origin. However, allowing the energy density on the wall to depend on the radius of the bubble, stable, static, non-singular solutions of negative mass which satisfy the dominant energy condition can be found. The interest on the subject of semi-classical vacuum decay dates back to the work of Coleman. A driving mechanism of the spacetime decay has been found to be the formation of bubbles. In other words, if we live in a false vacuum phase, an allowed process will be the formation of true vacuum bubbles expanding and coalescing between them. In there, gravity could inhibit the bubble nucleation process and even stop it.

Negative mass or negative energy densities are physically meaningful as long as the dominant energy condition is satisfied by the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. A thermodynamic hypothesis in terms of the negative energy density can be also used over the matter tensor. In a de Sitter spherical configuration, reduction of entropy implies information changes that require energy change, the system tending to equilibrium by reducing its entropy is intended to be interpreted as negative energy density configuration. A feasible scenario of tachyon matter interpretation could be elaborated in terms of negative density energy configurations as states defining the macroscopic behavior of the object.

See the Pen Space globe - Three.js by Ivaylo Vasilev (@ivaylo-vasilev-the-typescripter) on CodePen.

Here you can see some of the updates for the warp drive research, to see all the news please visit the **news feed.**

We publish regular **Updates **on the Warp-drive research in our YouTube channel:

https://www.youtube.com/c/AstrumDriveTechnologies

4/18/2023 Company Update:

We made a significant breakthrough in the Warp Drives. We showed that it is not required to have negative energy to create a functional warp drive. Here is the article in “General Relativity and Gravitation”, one of the most reputable Physics journals in the world:

Warp Dives – revisiting the problem of negative energy

1/13/2023 Update:

We received a US patent for our Warp Drive propulsion.

We were able to integrate the spherical warp-drive metric, electromagnetic fields, rotation, heat fluxes, radial and tangential pressures, anisotropies, and null fields into a unified framework with the aim of designing and conducting laboratory experiments to manipulate space-time.

This research is consistent with the general relativity and will be published in top-tier physics journals.

1/12/2023 Update:

We developed a new warp-drive metric with many favorable symmetries, details below.

Following in part the reasoning by Alcubierre’s original work and the introduction of physical warp drives made by Bobrick, we introduce a spacetime warp metric that rather uses and keeps spherical symmetry explicitly. In this way we write the Einstein equations using a perfect fluid and an anisotropic fluid with cosmological constant as test matter source.

Analyzing the energy conditions for both cases, we find that each of these cases are flexible enough to allow them to partially satisfy the energy conditions.

We also find that when the warp bubble shape function is time-independent, the metric admits a time-like Killing vector and all the energy conditions are satisfied except for the strong energy condition. Moreover, in the time-independent case a barotropic equation of state known from cosmological models naturally arises.

We published an article describing the new warp-metric in top tier (Q1) physics journal:

https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-11091-5

**9/27/2022 Update:**

Many problems have to be solved in order to achieve a viable warp drive. One of the best known is the problem of negative energy density but the search for sources of this type of energy didn’t bear any results. Our approach is to explore new families of metrics, solutions and regions that require positive energy densities.

The current warp-drive models, mostly based on Alcubierre’s 1994 proposal, are based on simple assumptions, contain no natural symmetries and are expressed using the simplest matter-energy configurations – this makes them impractical and difficult to work with. This is why we are adding new ingredients to the warp drive equations and looking for mechanisms that can be tested in analogous gravity and eventually in a laboratory.

What are these ingredients? They basically fall into two groups:

- Metrics with specific advantageous symmetries.
- Complex matter and thermodynamic relations.

We already have new metric proposals and some very interesting results. We are currently preparing several papers in prestigious peer-reviewed physics journals. Once published, we will post them here.

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